Past Research Grants

Rutgers Global Health Institute awards Global Health Seed Grants to faculty conducting collaborative, interdisciplinary activities that address health inequities in New Jersey and around the world. These grants are awarded in one of two categories: 1) Education, Training, and Capacity Building and 2) Research.

Research projects previously funded by Global Health Seed Grants are listed below. For projects funded in the Education, Training, and Capacity Building category, visit this page.

 

Development of Valid and Reliable Dietary and Physical Activity Assessments for a Birth Cohort Study in Kathmandu, Nepal (2018)

Shristi Rawal, PhD, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers School of Health Professions

Collaborative Partners: Rutgers School of Public Health; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Kathmandu University

In Nepal, rates of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes have been rising rapidly against a backdrop of limited health care infrastructure and resources. Because accumulating evidence suggests that predisposition to these diseases begins as early as in utero, pregnancy may be an opportune time for prevention and early intervention. While the Nepalese have many traditional beliefs and practices surrounding diet and physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum, research examining their impact on pregnancy and infant outcomes is sparse. Establishing an urban birth cohort study in Nepal will provide a unique opportunity to examine risk factors of pregnancy complications and the intergenerational influences of diet and lifestyle during pregnancy on the country’s growing epidemics of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this pilot project is to lay the necessary groundwork for such a study by developing valid and reliable dietary and physical activity assessments that are suitable for use in a Nepalese birth cohort, and by demonstrating the need and feasibility of implementing a longitudinal birth cohort study in an urban hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

 

Exploring the Role of Women’s Sanitation Practices on Physical and Mental Health: A Pilot Study in Mathare Valley, Kenya (2018)

Francis Barchi, PhD, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy

Collaborative Partners: University of Nairobi, Village Voices

Inadequate access to safe sanitation is associated with negative health outcomes for women around the world, but is a particularly persistent problem for women living in informal settlements. Women in settlements often only have access to unhygienic and unsafe toilets, increasing their risk of contracting infections and/or risking violence when they use such facilities. This pilot study involves a quantitative assessment of sanitation-related health outcomes for women in Mathare Valley informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. In conjunction with Village Voices, a local community-based organization in Kenya, we will conduct household-level surveys with 550 women to capture information on a range of self-reported health indicators that may be associated with women’s sanitation practices in informal settlements. These indicators include mental health, sanitation- and menstrual hygiene-related illnesses and conditions, and experiences of non-partner violence. Findings will support future grant proposals to build on this work in conjunction with women’s health clinics in Kenya.

 

Health System Inequalities: An Empirical Assessment of São Paulo, Brazil (2017)

Michael Gusmano, PhD, Department of Health Systems and Policy, Rutgers School of Public Health

Collaborative Partners: Rutgers School of Public Health, New York University, Columbia University, Centro de Criogenia

In 1988, the Constitution of Brazil established a right to health care, and the country adopted the Unified Health System, also known as SUS, which is funded by taxes and social contributions. The program expanded, and by 1999, 82 percent of the country was covered by health insurance. SUS provides free health care at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels through a national health system. The project is investigating the degree to which Brazil’s commitment to universal access to health care, regardless of ability to pay, is reflected in access to public health and health care services within São Paulo, Brazil. This project involves an analysis of health system inequalities within São Paulo through examination of four health system performance indicators: infant mortality, amenable mortality, avoidable hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions, and rates of revascularization adjusted for morbidity. The initial results from the project indicate that investments in the public health and health care system since 2000 have generated improvements in access to care in São Paulo, but geographic inequalities in access within the city have actually increased during this time period.

 

Impacts of Air Pollution Exposure on M.tb Transmission in an Urban Slum Community in Kampala, Uganda – A Pilot Study (2017)

Stephan Schwander, MD, PhD, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health

Qingyu Meng, PhD, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health

Collaborative Partners: Makerere University, EASEUganda

According to the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, more than half of the world’s population lives in cities, with approximately a quarter of the world’s urban population living in slums. In Africa, over half of the urban population lives in slums. People living in slum areas face multiple environmental and health challenges, including air pollution and infectious diseases. Namuwongo is the largest urban slum area in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, and has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). This slum can be seen as a model study site of major global environmental and public health significance as slum populations are expected to increase worldwide in the coming decades. The purpose of this study, which was conducted in August 2017, was to collect critical pilot data to assess personal air pollution exposures in the slum area in both TB households and healthy households, and to test cough aerosol sampling systems in the slum area. Successful protocols were developed for personal air pollution exposure assessments and the cough aerosol sampling. High peak exposures of atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide were detected.

 

Poor Growth, Vitamin A Deficiency, and Microbiome in Children (2017)

Loredana Quadro, PhD, Department of Food Science, Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences

Collaborative Partners: Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of São Paulo, Federal University of Alagoas

More than 150 million children worldwide are undernourished and experience permanently stunted growth. Undernourished children have impaired microbiome development that may limit nutrient absorption, promote inflammatory responses, and hinder healthy growth. Vitamin A-deficiency (VAD) affects hundreds of millions of children in developing countries, where VAD and general malnutrition are often linked. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that modulates intestinal inflammation, immunity, and cell proliferation. Given that a healthy gut is the prerequisite for proper microbiome development during childhood, it is hypothesized that children consuming a diet poor in energy and micronutrients such as vitamin A will have impaired intestinal functions that ultimately affect microbiome development, hindering normal growth. The project will determine the relationship between vitamin A status, microbiome, and growth by studying the microbiome of vitamin A sufficient and deficient children admitted for undernutrition at the Center for Nutrition Recovery and Education in Maceio, Brazil.

 

Strengthening Vegetable Value Chains for Improved Nutrition in a Kenyan Slum (2018)

Shauna Downs, PhD, Department of Health Systems and Policy, Rutgers School of Public Health

Collaborative Partners: Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences; Mirror of Hope

Kenya is currently battling multiple burdens of malnutrition. Increasing the consumption of African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) has the potential to help address malnutrition, particularly among vulnerable populations living in urban slums. This study will provide a sample of 20 women in Kibera, a large urban slum in Nairobi, with the inputs and extension support needed to grow AIV micro-plots in two Kibera schools. Using a combination of value chain analysis and consumer surveys, we will identify the incentives and disincentives for producing and consuming AIVs; identify bottlenecks in the AIV value chains and potential solutions to improve their availability, affordability, and acceptability; and examine AIV preferences and consumption patterns among 200 Kibera consumers. The findings of this study will inform the scale-up of AIV production in Kibera, as well as the development of a package of interventions aimed at improving their availability, affordability, and acceptability.